Best Septic Tank services

April 3, 2019 0 By shescrafty

The septic tank is usually made of concrete, fiberglass or plastic. It is typically buried and should be watertight. All septic tanks have baffles (or tees) at the inlet and outlet to insure proper flow patterns. Most septic tanks are single compartment. However, some people install two-compartment tanks or two single compartment tanks in series. While typically designed to hold a minimum of 1,000 or more gallons of sewage, the size of the tank may vary depending upon the number of bedrooms in the home and state and local regulatory requirements.


The primary purpose of the septic tank is to separate the solids from the liquids and to promote partial breakdown of contaminants by microorganisms naturally present in the wastewater. The solids, known as sludge, collect on the bottom of the tank, while the scum floats on the top of the liquid. The sludge and scum remain in the tank and should be pumped out periodically. Solids that are allowed to pass from the septic tank may clog the absorption field. Keeping solids out of the absorption field not only prevents clogging, but also reduces potentially expensive repair or replacement costs and helps ensure the ability of the soil to effectively treat the septic tank effluent. Therefore, an additional safeguard in keeping solids out of the absorption field is the use of effluent filters on the outlet of the septic tank. The wastewater (effluent) coming out of the septic tank may contain many potentially disease-causing microorganisms and other pollutants, such as nitrates, phosphates and chlorides.

After the effluent leaves the septic tank, it is transported either by gravity or by pumps to the distribution box and laterals. The distribution box is included as part of the system to separate the septic tank effluent evenly into a network of distribution lines that make up the absorption field. The figure below illustrates the distribution system as one would see it from above. The main pipe from the septic tank leads to the distribution box or “D-Box” from which an equal amount of effluent is channeled to each of the laterals. The laterals are located underground and become part of the zone of treatment and zone of disposal. The zone of disposal is illustrated in the figure below and works as follows.

The effluent is distributed through the perforated pipes, exits through the holes in the pipes and trickles through the rock or gravel where it is stored until absorbed by the soil. The zone of treatment, which is located in the unsaturated zone of the soil, treats the wastewater through physical, chemical and biological processes. The soil also acts as a natural buffer to filter out many of the harmful bacteria, viruses and excessive nutrients, effectively treating the wastewater as it passes through the unsaturated zone before it reaches the groundwater. This treatment primarily occurs at the top of the zone of treatment, where a Biomat develops, consisting of living beneficial bacteria, organic matter, and mineral precipitates. The Biomat provides a substrate for decomposition of the “bad” bacteria. The “clean” wastewater enters the ground water again in the “Zone of Disposal”, which is typically permeable soil or rock material that is above the water table.

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